Buying scuba equipment can be very expensive which is why you need to know a little bit about it before you throw down your hard-earned cash. We highly recommend you have patience and avoid buying if you are unsure of what you need. Those of you that know exactly what you want, and why you need it, should go ahead and buy your equipment. An example of understanding which piece of equipment you need can be knowing what diving fins you will need because of where you will be swimming. An example of this is purchasing a open water diving fin, yet you will be going on an undersea cave expedition which require something different altogether. Diving in waters that are deep where you need extra mobility will require fins that allow you to stop, go abruptly and travel fast. Whatever dive you may be going on, and whatever purpose it may entail, has a direct effect on the equipment that you use.
One piece of equipment that is used by most divers is called a demand regulator. You can have multiple cylinders, or even one, which hold the gas you breathe. These cylinders are very important because of the high pressure air within them that is accessed by the diver through the diving regulator. Of course the job of the demand regulator is to provide the gas at an appropriate pressure for breathing. The position of the diver also factors into how this works.
Another piece of equipment that you need to take into account is the second stage air regulator on your mouthpiece more commonly called a demand valve. Another spare demand valve which is attached to a completely different host, called the octopus, is also very popular. There will be multiple hoses from a primary regulator located on the top of the cylinder. It is always good to have extra hoses, not to mention a spare demand valve, when scuba diving in unknown territory. This will help ease a little bit of your worries as it will provide a way for you to breathe in case things go wrong. You can easily spot this because it will be yellow in color, and that means it is a secondary source or emergency back-up.
You will always know if you are with a technical diver as they will go deeper than you would imagine going yourself. Diving in waters that are extremely deep require special skills, acquirements, and an awareness that only veterans typically have. Redundant gas systems, along with special mixtures in their oxygen tanks, makes these divers better equipped to handle greater depths. Some divers will attach what are called pony cylinders to them for these purposes. Pony cylinders have a their own demand regulators, hoses and mouthpieces. Because they are fully contained, they can provide the air that you need in order to resurface when malfunctions occur.
Diving is definitely a fun filled event, some of which involves extensive scuba training with equipment. Dry suit diving, and cave diving, have become very popular over the last few decades requiring more special gear to be manufactured. Then there are even more specific situations used in industry and the military. SCUBA diving is something that you must continue to learn about and practice, but the fact that it can be done for many years is very good for everyone.
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(Bear in mind that prior to taking any medical advice that you talk to your doctor first).